Finance, Credit, Investments – Economical Categories

Scientific works in the theories of finances and credit, according to the specification of the research object, are characterized to be many-sided and many-leveled.

The definition of totality of the economical relations formed in the process of formation, distribution and usage of finances, as money sources is widely spread. For example, in “the general theory of finances” there are two definitions of finances:

1) “…Finances reflect economical relations, formation of the funds of money sources, in the process of distribution and redistribution of national receipts according to the distribution and usage”. This definition is given relatively to the conditions of Capitalism, when cash-commodity relations gain universal character;

2) “Finances represent the formation of centralized ad decentralized money sources, economical relations relatively with the distribution and usage, which serve for fulfillment of the state functions and obligations and also provision of the conditions of the widened further production”. This definition is brought without showing the environment of its action. We share partly such explanation of finances and think expedient to make some specification.

First, finances overcome the bounds of distribution and redistribution service of the national income, though it is a basic foundation of finances. Also, formation and usage of the depreciation fund which is the part of financial domain, belongs not to the distribution and redistribution of the national income (of newly formed value during a year), but to the distribution of already developed value.

This latest first appears to be a part of value of main industrial funds, later it is moved to the cost price of a ready product (that is to the value too) and after its realization, and it is set the depression fund. Its source is taken into account before hand as a depression kind in the consistence of the ready products cost price.

Second, main goal of finances is much wider then “fulfillment of the state functions and obligations and provision of conditions for the widened further production”. Finances exist on the state level and also on the manufactures and branches’ level too, and in such conditions, when the most part of the manufactures are not state.

V. M. Rodionova has a different position about this subject: “real formation of the financial resources begins on the stage of distribution, when the value is realized and concrete economical forms of the realized value are separated from the consistence of the profit”. V. M. Rodionova makes an accent of finances, as distributing relations, when D. S. Moliakov underlines industrial foundation of finances. Though both of them give quite substantiate discussion of finances, as a system of formation, distribution and usage of the funds of money sources, that comes out of the following definition of the finances: “financial cash relations, which forms in the process of distribution and redistribution of the partial value of the national wealth and total social product, is related with the subjects of the economy and formation and usage of the state cash incomes and savings in the widened further production, in the material stimulation of the workers for satisfaction of the society social and other requests”.

In the manuals of the political economy we meet with the following definitions of finances:
“Finances of the socialistic state represent economical (cash) relations, with the help of which, in the way of planned distribution of the incomes and savings the funds of money sources of the state and socialistic manufactures are formed for guaranteeing the growth of the production, rising the material and cultural level of the people and for satisfying other general society requests”.
“The system of creation and usage of necessary funds of cash resources for guarantying socialistic widened further production represent exactly the finances of the socialistic society. And the totality of economical relations arisen between state, manufactures and organizations, branches, regions and separate citizen according to the movement of cash funds make financial relations”.
As we’ve seen, definitions of finances made by financiers and political economists do not differ greatly.
In every discussed position there are:

1) expression of essence and phenomenon in the definition of finances;

2) the definition of finances, as the system of the creation and usage of funds of cash sources on the level of phenomenon.

3) Distribution of finances as social product and the value of national income, definition of the distributions planned character, main goals of the economy and economical relations, for servicing of which it is used.

If refuse the preposition “socialistic” in the definition of finances, we may say, that it still keeps actuality. We meet with such traditional definitions of finances, without an adjective “socialistic”, in the modern economical literature. We may give such an elucidation: “finances represent cash resources of production and usage, also cash relations appeared in the process of distributing values of formed economical product and national wealth for formation and further production of the cash incomes and savings of the economical subjects and state, rewarding of the workers and satisfaction of the social requests”. in this elucidation of finances like D. S. Moliakov and V. M. Rodionov’s definitions, following the traditional inheritance, we meet with the widening of the financial foundation. They concern “distribution and redistribution of the value of created economical product, also the partial distribution of the value of national wealth”. This latest is very actual, relatively to the process of privatization and the transition to privacy and is periodically used in practice in different countries, for example, Great Britain and France.

“Finances – are cash sources, financial resources, their creation and movement, distribution and redistribution, usage, also economical relations, which are conditioned by intercalculations between the economical subjects, movement of cash sources, money circulation and usage”.
“Finances are the system of economical relations, which are connected with firm creation, distribution and usage of financial resources”.

We meet with absolutely innovational definitions of finances in Z. Body and R. Merton’s basis manuals. “Finance – it is the science about how the people lead spending `the deficit cash resources and incomes in the definite period of time. The financial decisions are characterized by the expenses and incomes which are 1) separated in time, and 2) as a rule, it is impossible to take them into account beforehand neither by those who get decisions nor any other person” . “Financial theory consists of numbers of the conceptions… which learns systematically the subjects of distribution of the cash resources relatively to the time factor; it also considers quantitative models, with the help of which the estimation, putting into practice and realization of the alternative variants of every financial decisions take place” .

These basic conceptions and quantitative models are used at every level of getting financial decisions, but in the latest definition of finances, we meet with the following doctrine of the financial foundation: main function of the finances is in the satisfaction of the people’s requests; the subjects of economical activities of any kind (firms, also state organs of every level) are directed towards fulfilling this basic function.

For the goals of our monograph, it is important to compare well-known definitions about finances, credit and investment, to decide how and how much it is possible to integrate the finances, investments and credit into the one total part.

Some researcher thing that credit is the consisting part of finances, if it is discussed from the position of essence and category. The other, more numerous group proves, that an economical category of credit exists parallel to the economical category of finances, by which it underlines impossibility of the credit’s existence in the consistence of finances.

N. K. Kuchukova underlined the independence of the category of credit and notes that it is only its “characteristic feature the turned movement of the value, which is not related with transmission of the loan opportunities together with the owners’ rights”.

N. D. Barkovski replies that functioning of money created an economical basis for apportioning finances and credit as an independent category and gave rise to the credit and financial relations. He noticed the Gnoseological roots of science in money and credit, as the science about finances has business with the research of such economical relations, which lean upon cash flow and credit.
Let’s discuss the most spread definitions of credit. in the modern publications credit appeared to be “luckier”, then finances. For example, we meet with the following definition of credit in the finance-economical dictionary: “credit is the loan in the form of cash and commodity with the conditions of returning, usually, by paying percent. Credit represents a form of movement of the loan capital and expresses economical relations between the creditor and borrower”.

This is the traditional definition of credit. In the earlier dictionary of the economy we read: “credit is the system of economical relations, which is formed while the transmission of cash and material means into the temporal usage, as a rule under the conditions of returning and paying percent”.
In the manual of the political economy published under reduction of V. A. Medvedev the following definition is given: “credit, as an economical category, expresses the created relations between the society, labour collective and workers during formation and usage of the loan funds, under the terms of paying present and returning, during transmission of sources for the temporal usage and accumulation”.

Credit is discussed in the following way in the earlier education-methodological manuals of political economy: “credit is the system of money relations, which is created in the process of using and mobilization of temporarily free cash means of the state budget, unions, manufactures, organizations and population. Credit has an objective character. It is used for providing widened further production of the state and other needs. Credit differs from finances by the returning character, while financing of manufactures and organizations by the state is fulfilled without this condition”.

We meet with the following definition if “the course of economy”: “credit is an economical category, which represents relations, while the separate industrial organizations or persons transmit money means to each-other for temporal usage under the conditions of returning. Creation of credit is conditioned by a historical process of fulfilling the economical and money relations, the form of which is the money relation”.

Following scientists give slightly different definitions of credit:
“Credit – is a loan in the form of money or commodity, which is given to the borrower by a creditor under the conditions of returning and paying the percentage rate by the borrower”.
Credit is giving the temporally free money sources or commodity as a debt for the defined terms by the price of fixed percentage. Thus, a credit is the loan in the form of money or commodity. In the process of this loan’s movement, a definite relations are formed between a creditor (the loan is given by a juridical of physical person, who gives certain cash as a debt) and the debtor.
Combining every definition named above, we come to an idea, that credit is giving money capital of commodity as a debt, for certain terms and material provision under the price of firm percentage rate. It expresses definite economical relations between the participants of the process of capital formation. Necessity of the credit relations is conditioned, from one side, by gathering solid quantity of temporarily free money sources, and from the second side, existence of requests of them.

Though, at the same time we must distinguish two resembling concepts: loan and credit. Loan is characterized by:

o Here, the discussion may touch upon transmission of money and also things form one side (loaner) to another (borrower): a)under the owning of the borrower and, at the same time, b) under the conditions of returning same amount or same quantity and quality of the things;

o The loaning of money may bear no interest;

o Any person may take part in it.
With the difference with loan, credit, which is somehow a private occasion of the loan, represents:

o One side (loaner) gives to the second one (borrower) only money, and _ for temporal usage;

o It may not bear no interest (if the assignment doesn’t foresee something);

o In it creditor is not any person, but a credit organization (at the first place, banks).
So, a credit is the bank credit. To our mind, it is not correct to use “credit” and “loan” as the synonyms.
Banking crediting is the union of relations between bank (as a creditor) and its borrower. These relations touch upon:

a) Giving a certain amount of money to the borrower for definite purpose (though, we meet with the so-called free credits, aims and objects of crediting are not appointed in the assignment);

b) Its opportune returning;

c) Getting percentage rate from the borrower for using the sources under his/her disposal.
The essential foundation of the credit essence and its important element is existence of trust between the two sides (in Latin “credo”, from which comes the word “credit”, means “trust”).
From the position of circulation of money forms (in the abstraction, historical process of formation economical relations and social budget and banking systems expressed by them) comparing different definitions of finances and credit, the paradox conclusion appears: credit is the private occasion of finances. And truly, from the position of movement of the money forms, finances represent the process of formation and usage of the funds of cash means. Very often such movements are fulfilled without returning, but sometimes, it is possible to give loans from the budget for the investment projects of other needs. Also, when a manufacture or corporations use their cash funds and we mean the finances of industrial subject, such usage may be realized as inside the manufacture or corporation (there is no subject about returning or not returning of the usage), so gratis under conditions of returning. This latest is called commercial form because of transmitting the sources to others, but even in this occasion, it is the element of financial system of the manufacture and corporation.

From the point of cash means movement, main character of credit is the process of formation and usage of the funds of cash means under the conditions of returning and, as a rule, taking the value-percentage. If gating the credit value doesn’t take place (even in the exceptional occasions), according to the movement form, credit becomes a private occasion of finances, as from the net financial funds (consequently from the state budget) the loans which bear no interests may be used. If gating credit value takes place, by the appearance form, credit is discussed to be financial modification.

From the historical point of view, finances (especially in the sort of the state budget) and credit (beginning with usury, later commercial and banking) were developing differently for considering credit to be the part of finances. Though, from the genetic-historical point of view, previous loaners, before giving loan, needed gathering the permanent capital not returning, that is the net financial foundation. The banks analogously needed concentration of the important own capital for influxing the consumers’ means and for getting higher percentage rate under the conditions of returning. Herewith, exactly on the financial basis, in the sort of financial fund (which later partially becomes loan fund) part of the bank capital appears to be the reservation (insurance) part of the fund, which by nature is financial and not loan. So notwithstanding the essential distinctions between finances and credit form the genetic-historical point of view, credit appears to be formed from finances and represent their modification.

From the essential position of expressing economical relations of finances and credit, we meet with cardinal distinctions between these two categories. Which mostly expressed by the distinction of the movement forms notwithstanding they are returnable or not. Finances express relations in the aspects of distribution and redistribution of social product and part of the national wealth. Credit expresses distribution of the appropriate value only in the section of percentage given for loan, while according to the loan itself, a only a temporal distribution of money sources takes place.
Herewith, there is a lot of common between the finances and credit as from the essential point of view, so according to the form of movement. At the same time, there is a significant distinction between finances and credit as in the essence, so in the form too. According to this, there must be a kind of generally economical category, which will consider finances and credit as a total unity, and in the bounds of this category itself, the separation of the specific essence of the finances and credit would take place.

Funding of the cash means is common to the researched economical categories. It takes place in any separate system of finances and credit, which have been touched upon during the analyses of defining finances and credit. Word combination “funding of the cash sources (fund formation)” reflects and defines exactly essence and form of economical category of more general character, those of finances and credit categories. Though in the in economical texts and practice, it is very uncomfortable to use a termini, which consists of three words. Also, “unloading” with an information hardens greatly its influxing into the circulation even in the conditions of its strict substantiation and thoroughness.
In the discussing context we consider:

1) wide and narrow understanding of economical category of the finances;

2) discussing finances in narrow understanding under general traditional meaning;

3) discussing finances, as funding of the cash means, in wide understanding, which concerns finances – in narrow meaning and credit – in complete meaning.
Termini “funding” and its equivalent “fund formation” are used by us as the purposeful structuring of cash means, which is based on two poles – accumulation of money sources (gathering) and its usage for definite purpose in the way of financing and crediting.
We have established a new termini – “finance-investment sphere” (FIS). Analyses about interrelation of finances and credit made by us give us an opportunity of proving, that in the given termini, the word “financial” is used with the meaning of funding cash sources, its purposeful structuring. In this process we consider at the same time financial, credit and investments’ economical categories.

Let’s sum up middle results of discussing new concept – “finance-investment sphere” and discuss its investment consisting parts.

The concept “investments” was brought into the native economical science from the West. In the Soviet economical science they for a long time used in the place “investments” the termini “capital placement”, which expressed the usage of the industrial factors in the sphere of real industrial activities during realization of capital projects. From one glance, this termini in its concept is identical to the “investments”, consequently it is possible to use them as synonyms. Though the termini “investments” and “investing” have the advantage towards the termini “capital placement” from linguistic and philological points of view, because they are expressed with one word. This is not only economical and comfortable in the process of working with the termini “investment” itself, but also it gives an opportunity of termini formation. More concretely: “investment process”, “investment domain”, “finance-investment sphere” – all these termini are much more acceptable.
Changing native economical termini with foreign ones is purposeful, if it really matters (by keeping parallel usage of the native termini for the inheritance). Though we must not change native economical termini into foreign ones all together, when by ordinal traditional language easy to explain private and narrow concrete processes and elements get their own termini. The “movement” of these termini is approved in the narrow professional bounds, but their “spitting out” into the economical science may turn economical language into the tangled slang.

Let’s discuss termini – “investment” and “capital placement’s” usage in the economical literature.
Investments are placement of funds into the main and circulation capital for the purpose of getting profit. “Investments in material assets – are the placements of funds into the mobile and real estate (land, buildings, furniture and so on). Investments in financial assets are the placements of funds into the securities bank accounts and other financial instruments”.

We don’t meet with the termini “investments” in the earlier economical dictionary, but we meet the combined termini “investment policy” – the union of the industrial decisions, which guarantee main directions of the capital investments, the activities of their concentration in the determinant suburbs, on which the reaching of planned rates of development of the society production is depended, balancing and effectiveness, getting more and more production and profit of the national income for every lost Ruble”. For today, in the most actual definitions, the capital investments are bounded only by financial means, when not only financial, but also the investment of natural, material-technical and informational resources takes place. Labour resources take an actual place in the investment process. They themselves fulfill this or that investment process.

A positive side of the discussed definitions is that they connect investment policy and capital placements (investments):

– economical development according to the key directions to the concentration;

– providing high rates of economical growth;

– raising an economical effectiveness, which is expressed:

a) by growing the throw off of the production and national income for every lost Ruble;

b) by fulfilling the branch structure of the investments;

c) by improving their technological structure;

d) by optimization of their further production structure.

Compared with such definition of the investments (capital placement) the definition of investments in the dictionary attaching the “Economics” seems to be unimproved: “investments – the expenses of gathering production and industrial means and increasing material reserve”. In this definition current expenses (production expenses) are mixed with the investment (capital) expense. Also, not the investment expenses but (though the investments are followed by the appropriate expenses) exactly advancing. It differs from the expenses by that the means (means) are put by returning the advanced values, also, under the conditions of growth, to which the concept-advanced capital is corresponding. the advancing may be realized in the money, natural-material and informational forms.

Except the termini “investments”, there are two more termini related with the investment. They are shown below.

“Human capital investment” – any activity provided for rising the workers labour productivity (in the way of growing their qualification and developing their abilities); at the expenses of improving the workers’ education, health and raising the mobility of the working forces”. It is very useful to use the mentioned termini, though it needs one correction: the human capital investments do not concern only workers, but also the servants, representatives of every kind of labour.
“Investment commodity, capital goods – a capital.”

In the official manuals of political economy of the reformation time the capital investments are discussed as “expenses for creating new main funds and widening, reconstruction and renewing the active ones”. In this definition the investments (capital placements) during separation of the forms (types) of further production of the main funds are bounded only by main funds (without increases of the circulation funds and insurance reserves):

a) creating new ones;

b) widening;

c) reconstruction;

d) renewing.

Also, the concept of the industrial gathering appears, at the expenses of widening of basic, circulation funds and also insurance reserves takes place”.

You’ll meet below the definitions of investments from “the course of economy”: the investments are called “placements of fund into the basic capital (basic means of production), reserves, also other economical objects and processes, which request long-termed influxing of material and cash means. “According to the division of capital into physical and money forms, the investments too must be divided into material and cash investments”.

They apportion investment commodity, to which belong industrial and nonindustrial building objects, vehicles purposed for changing or widened technical park and the furniture, increasing reserves and others.

“They call the total investments of production an investment product, which is directed towards keeping and increasing the basic capital (basic means) and reserve. Total investments consist of two parts. One of them is called the depreciation; it represents important investment resources for compensation of renewal till the level of before industrial usage, wearing out and repairing of the basic means. Second consisting part of the total investments is represented by net investments – capital investments for the purpose of increasing basic means”. Depreciation is not a compensation resource of wearing the basic funds out, but it is the purposeful financial source of such resources.
Human capital investment is “a specific kind of investments, mostly in education and health protection”.

“Real investments are the investments in the economical branches and also, they are kinds of economical activities, which provide influxing the increases of real capital, that is increasing material values of the industrial means”. We can agree with such definition with one specification that material and nonmaterial values too belong to the real capital (wealth), consequently science-researching experimental-construction results, various information, education of he workers and others. Such service as organization of the excitable games, also the service of redistribution social wealth from one private person to another (except charity).

“Financial investments represent placement of funds into the shares, obligations, promissory notes, other securities and instruments. Such investments, of course, do not give increases of the real material capital, but they help getting profit, consequently at the expenses of changing the course of the securities in the time of speculation, or distinguishing the course in different places of sell and purchasing”. We share wholly such definition, hence it follows that financial investments (if it is not followed by real investments as a result) do not increase real material wealth and real nonmaterial wealth. According to this context, the expression below is very important: “we must distinguish financial investments, which represent placement of the funds in the ways of selling and purchasing the securities for the purpose of getting profit and financial investments, which become cash and real, moved to real physical capital.”

In the “economical course” quoted before long and short-termed investments are separated. Recognizing the existence of the bounds between them, the authors ascribe short-termed investments to “one month or more” investments. If we get such conditioned criteria, that we can call the investments which overcome the terms of some months, long-termed ones, which is very doubtful and we don’t agree with it. A long-termed character of the fund placement is a significant feature of the investments (short-term doesn’t combine with the concept of investments). Principally, it would be better to point out quick compensative, middle termed compensative and long-termed compensative investments:

– less then 6 months – quick compensative;

– from 6 months up to the year and a half – middle termed compensative;

– more then the year and a half – long termed compensative.

We stopped at the definition of the investments in the capital work “economical course” for the special purpose, as, in it the author tried to discuss the concept of investments systemically and quite completely, herewith the book is published just now.

We’ll return to the discussion the definition economical category of “investments” in different publications in the following chapter. The definitions given here are quite enough for having a notion of the level of lighting up the given category in the economical literature.
What conclusions may be made according the definition of the mentioned economical category in the published works, except the made notions and specifications?

There is quite deeply, concretely and thoroughly defined the concept of “investments”, different definitions in the economical literature; but mostly in every works about the investments discussed by us until now, there is not opened the essence of investments as an economical category. In every monograph , even if it has a title investment, as an economical category , there is given only the definition, concept of investments. But, as the Academician Vasil Chantladze explains, “a concept is a discussion, which proves something about the distinguishing feature of the researched object. A concept out of much essential characteristic features represents only one, and essential in it is only – definition”.

But the categories are much wider; it is “a key, the most fundamental concept of every science”. Economical categories theoretically represent real, objectively existed productive relations. A category is the defining of occasions of existed characters, connections, relations of the objective world. Generally, any educational process is fulfilled by the categories, which give opportunities for dividing the processes and occasions semantically, for expressing the definitions of a subject and realize their specific peculiarities and economical relations of a material world.
Our goal is exactly to substantiate investments – as an economical category and also, as a financial category in the narrow understanding.

Here we apply for another manual thesis made by the academician Vasil Chantladze: “every financial relation is an economical one and every financial category is and economical one, but not every economical relation and economical category is financial relation and financial category”.
In the process of defining the investments, it is important to take in mind the sides of resources, expenses and incomes, because investment, from one side, is the result of the manufacture’s activity, and, from another one, – a part of income, which, in this case, is not used for usage.
Another occasion: it is advisable to discuss investments in two aspects: as a category of reserve and flow, which will reflect exactly the connection between “placement of funds” and “investments”.

As we’ve mentioned above, not long ago, in the well-known Soviet literature the concepts of “the placement of funds” and “investments” were accepted to be the synonyms and concerned to be investment of sources for further production of the main funds and formation of the turnover funds. We meet with such understanding of the concept of “investment” (here, they separate three types of the investment expenses: investments in the basic capital of investments, investments in the house building and investments in the reserves) in the modern economical publications and it is mostly used on the macro level during a statistical analyze of economical processes. In this concrete occasion investment is the category of reserve.

Small Business Finance – Finding the Right Mix of Debt and Equity

Financing a small business can be most time consuming activity for a business owner. It can be the most important part of growing a business, but one must be careful not to allow it to consume the business. Finance is the relationship between cash, risk and value. Manage each well and you will have healthy finance mix for your business.

Develop a business plan and loan package that has a well developed strategic plan, which in turn relates to realistic and believable financials. Before you can finance a business, a project, an expansion or an acquisition, you must develop precisely what your finance needs are.

Finance your business from a position of strength. As a business owner you show your confidence in the business by investing up to ten percent of your finance needs from your own coffers. The remaining twenty to thirty percent of your cash needs can come from private investors or venture capital. Remember, sweat equity is expected, but it is not a replacement for cash.

Depending on the valuation of your business and the risk involved, the private equity component will want on average a thirty to forty percent equity stake in your company for three to five years. Giving up this equity position in your company, yet maintaining clear majority ownership, will give you leverage in the remaining sixty percent of your finance needs.

The remaining finance can come in the form of long term debt, short term working capital, equipment finance and inventory finance. By having a strong cash position in your company, a variety of lenders will be available to you. It is advisable to hire an experienced commercial loan broker to do the finance “shopping” for you and present you with a variety of options. It is important at this juncture that you obtain finance that fits your business needs and structures, instead of trying to force your structure into a financial instrument not ideally suited for your operations.

Having a strong cash position in your company, the additional debt financing will not put an undue strain on your cash flow. Sixty percent debt is a healthy. Debt finance can come in the form of unsecured finance, such as short-term debt, line of credit financing and long term debt. Unsecured debt is typically called cash flow finance and requires credit worthiness. Debt finance can also come in the form of secured or asset based finance, which can include accounts receivable, inventory, equipment, real estate, personal assets, letter of credit, and government guaranteed finance. A customized mix of unsecured and secured debt, designed specifically around your company’s financial needs, is the advantage of having a strong cash position.

The cash flow statement is an important financial in tracking the effects of certain types of finance. It is critical to have a firm handle on your monthly cash flow, along with the control and planning structure of a financial budget, to successfully plan and monitor your company’s finance.

Your finance plan is a result and part of your strategic planning process. You need to be careful in matching your cash needs with your cash goals. Using short term capital for long term growth and vice versa is a no-no. Violating the matching rule can bring about high risk levels in the interest rate, re-finance possibilities and operational independence. Some deviation from this age old rule is permissible. For instance, if you have a long term need for working capital, then a permanent capital need may be warranted. Another good finance strategy is having contingency capital on hand for freeing up your working capital needs and providing maximum flexibility. For example, you can use a line of credit to get into an opportunity that quickly arises and then arrange for cheaper, better suited, long term finance subsequently, planning all of this upfront with a lender.

Unfortunately finance is not typically addressed until a company is in crisis. Plan ahead with an effective business plan and loan package. Equity finance does not stress cash flow as debt can and gives lenders confidence to do business with your company. Good financial structuring reduces the costs of capital and the finance risks. Consider using a business consultant, finance professional or loan broker to help you with your finance plan.

How to Choose a Car Finance Broker – Some Useful Tips

Financing a car is a very important process and today with the availability of numerous car finance brokers it has become an easy option to get secure car loans. Today these car finance brokers are also playing a vital role in assisting car buyers. In fact, consulting and taking help of car broker can definitely be most appropriate option if you don’t have any clue about what to look at according to your budget. A finance broker is the most experienced personnel and clued-up on how to approach the financiers in a way that can persuade them to approve the loan. They usually have good relations and reputation with the lenders as being reliable, and so they know which lenders are likely to be open to a client.

In general, they act as the key source and offer services such as finding a used or brand new car model that the customer wants and within a budget range. At times, these car brokers even assist car buyers in negotiating with a used car seller. However, these days there are many car finance services and making a proper selection is turning out to be a very complicated process. You need to understand that not all car finance services are fair. Therefore, if you are looking to finance a car or choose a car financing service then here are a few important points that you should keep in mind while making a selection:

Standards

You must confirm whether your car finance consultant or broker is a member of FBAA or COSL or both of these industry associations. While Finance Brokers’ Association of Australia Ltd. (FBAA) is one of Australia’s leading membership bodies for finance broking professionals, the Credit Ombudsman Service Limited (COSL) is an independent organisation that is mainly indulged in handling complaints about finance brokers. You can easily confirm finance consultant’s membership by searching through their member list. Adding to this, WA Finance Broker License is yet another additional requirement for finance brokers serving in Western Australia. Nevertheless, if you are looking for finance broker and residing in the state of WA or other states of Australia, it is essential that the broker must hold a WA Finance Broker License. A broker holding WA Finance Broker License entails passing a comprehensive range of checks, educational requirements and operational requirements.

Accreditation

While selecting a car finance broker also ensure you know about their range of lender accreditations. The range of accreditations held by a broker governs the range of options they can offer. You must note that a broker’s accreditation can not just change the range of finance options available to you, but it may even affect the quality of those options.

Experienced Staff

You must choose car finance service that recruits and retains professional and knowledgeable staff. The broker must be an experienced professional who can demonstrate and explain about why a particular product is highly recommended or even suites your specific circumstance. If possible make sure you even ask for testimonials from previous clients that in turn may help you in the confirmation of their experience.

Services Offered

As mentioned earlier, today there are many finance services available in the market. Therefore, you must find out more about any extra service that a broker can provide. You should expect your finance consultant to supply detailed information about timeframes, and any fees or extra charges related with your finance. The key point is if a broker is being able to clarify the comparison rate of your recommended vehicle finance and the overall cost of your finance package then it is quality sign of a good finance broker.

These are some important points that can help you in choosing your car finance services easily. Today a lot of responsibility goes along with buying a car and taking financial help through car broker. Just taking care of few essential steps can help you select your car broker and further purchase a nice new or used car.

Financing Cash Flow Peaks And Valleys

For many businesses, financing cash flow for their business can be like riding a continuous roller coaster.

Sales are up, then they do down. Margins are good, then they flatten out. Cash flow can swing back and forth like an EKG graph of a heart attack.

So how do you go about financing cash flow for these types of businesses?

First, you need to accurately know and manage your monthly fixed costs. Regardless of what happens during the year, you need to be on top of what amount of funds will be required to cover off the recurring and scheduled operating costs that will occur whether you make a sale or not. Doing this monthly for a full twelve month cycle provides a basis for cash flow decision making.

Second, from where you are at right now, determine the amount of funds available in cash, owners outside capital that could be invested in the business, and other outside sources currently in place.

Third, project out your cash flow so that fixed costs, existing accounts payable and accounts receivable are realistically entered into the future weeks and months. If cash is always tight, make sure you do your cash flow on a weekly basis. There is too much variability over the course of a single month to project out only on a monthly basis.

Now you have a basis to assess financing your cash flow.

Financing cash flow is always going to be somewhat unique to each business due to industry, sector, business model, stage of business, business size, owner resources, and so on.

Each business must self assess its sources of financing cash flow, including but not limited to owner investment, trade or payable financing, government remittances, receivable discounts for early payment, deposits on sale, third party financing (line of credit, term loan, factoring, purchase order financing, inventory financing, asset based lending, or whatever else is relevant to you).

Ok, so now you have a cash flow bearing and a thorough understanding of your options available for financing cash flow in your specific business model.

Now what?

Now you are in a position to entertain future sales opportunities that fit into your cash flow.

Three points to clarify before we go further.

First, financing is not strictly about getting a loan from someone when your cash flow needs more money. Its a process of keeping your cash flow continuously positive at the lowest possible cost.

Second, you should only market and sell what you can cash flow. Marketers will measure the ROI of a marketing initiative. But if you can’t cash flow the business to complete the sale and collect the proceeds, there is no ROI to measure. If you have a business with fluctuating sales and margins, you can only enter into transactions that you can finance.

Third, marketing needs to focus on customers that you can sell to over and over again in order to maximize your marketing efforts and reduce the unpredictability of the annual sales cycle through regular repeat orders and sales.

Marketing works under the premise that if you are providing what the customer wants that the money side of the equation will take care of itself. In many businesses this indeed proves to be true. But in a business with fluctuating sales and margins, financing cash flow has to be another criteria built into sales and marketing activities.

Overtime, virtually any business has the potential to smooth out the peaks and valleys through a more robust marketing plan that better lines up with customer needs and the business’s financing limitations or parameters.

In addition to linking financing cash flow more closely to marketing and sales, the next most impactful action you can take is expanding your sources of financing.

Here are some potential strategies for expanding your sources for financing cash flow.

Strategy # 1: Develop strategic relationships with key suppliers that have the ability to extend greater financing in certain situations to take advantage of sales opportunities. This is accomplished with larger suppliers that 1) have the financial means to extend financing, 2) view you as a key customer and value your business, 3) have confidence in the business’s ability to forecast and manage cash flow.

Strategy # 2: Make sure where possible that your annual financial statements show a profit capable of servicing debt financing. Accountants may be good at saving you income tax dollars, but if they drive business profitability down to or close to zero through tax planning, they may also effectively destroying your ability to borrow money.

Strategy # 3: If possible, only transact with credit worthy customers. Credit worthy customers allow both the business and potential lenders to finance receivables which can increase the amount of external financing available to you.

Strategy # 4: Develop a liquidation pathway for your tangible assets. Equipment and inventory are easier to finance if lenders clearly understand how to liquidate the assets in the event of default. In some cases, businesses can get resale option agreements on certain equipment or inventory from prospective buyers assignable to a lender to be used as recourse against a lending facility for financing cash flow.

Strategy # 5: Joint venture a sales opportunity with another business to share the risk of a large sales opportunity that may be too risky for you to take on yourself.

Summary

The primary long term objective of a business with fluctuating cash flow and margins is to smooth out the peaks and valleys and create a scalable business with more of a predictable sales cycle.

This is best achieved with an approach that including the following steps.

Step #1. Micro Manage your fixed costs and cash flow and accurately project out the cash flow requirements of the business on a weekly basis.

Step #2. Take a detailed inventory of all the sources you have for financing cash flow.

Step #3. Incorporate your financing constraints into your marketing approach.

Step #4. If possible, only transact with credit worthy customers to reduce risk and increase financing options.

Step #5. Work towards expanding both your financing sources and available source limits for financing cash flow.

Business cycle stability and cash flow predictability is an evolutionary step for every business. The industries with longer sales cycles will tend to be the more difficult to tame due to a larger number of variables to manage.

A continuous focus on the process for improvement outlined will help create the desired results over time.

Personal Finance Articles Finally Show You How to Change Your Mind About Your Personal Finance Now

Many personal finance articles have been written on the issue of money. Can’t say I have been moved to action by many. First I’d like to say it is OK that you feel down about the current situation about your personal finances. I give you permission to feel your feeling for the next 24 hours and then pull yourself by your boot straps and let’s what we can do.

There exist many a definition, I want to share with you my personal finance definition:

Financial freedom is not an event, it is a skill.

I bet right now with the current economic situation you are saying to yourself, “I just wish I could the lotto!” Boy don’t we all and yet statistics and personal finance facts show that the majority of people who win the lottery, end up broke and worse off before their winnings! Imagine that. You among the many seeking wealth, riches, fame few people realize that money isn’t the solution to their problems; the way you think about money is the problem and the solution.

I can almost see you going oh yeah, give me the money and I’ll show you change in mindset! My favorite entrepreneur of all times, Henry Ford was once asked, “What if you lost everything you own?” He responded without missing a beat: “I’d have it all back and more within 5 years.”

Being a master of your own personal finance is not about what is in the bank; it’s about the ability to acquire the skill that will show you how to produce new streams of income and wealth based on your knowledge and experience.

So before we go any further on this issue let us tackle the real problem here that is impeding your personal finance for good! Why you might ask? Well without the mastery of these 5 steps, your desire for your goal for financial success and financial freedom is highly unlikely! This is why big players in any industry have coaches, Oprah has a life coach, football players and basketball players have coaches and mentors. Tiger woods after every bad game will go in for coaching and training. Why? Those who achieve great financial success do not go it alone. They always have a team. Those who achieve great poverty have the do it yourself mentality!

Why is it important to plan personal finances? As you have figured out by now, the cliche is true, when you fail to plan, you are planning to fail!

5 Personal Finance Guidelines That Will Guarantee You Become Master Your Personal Finances

1. How do you think about money? Say you come up with an idea to do something. Do you think that will never work? Are you afraid to follow through? Are you scared of losing money or do you see every dollar spent as an investment?

2. How do you manage and invest your time? The average man has at his disposal 6 discretionary hours. This is time they can do whatever they want. No work, no chores etc. Many will watch T.V., attend pricey sports events, spend money on meals at a restaurant and movies, see where I am going with this? Do you do personal finance budgeting?

3. How do you leverage the talents and life experiences you ALREADY POSSESS?
Most people see their experiences as failures. They only talk of how they tried to do something as failed. Thomas Edison failed more than I care to count, and yet he persisted to light the whole world. Many of life’s failures are people who did not realize how close they were to success when they gave up. Thomas A. Edison

4. Do you have a mentor and coach with a proven personal finance curriculum? This is the true measure of your desire for financial freedom. This is where you literally put your money where your mouth is, can’t afford a mentor you say? Well what was the last book you read? Gossip magazines do not count as literature sorry!

5. What do you think is “risky,” and what do you think is “safe and secure”? Most people never break into the realm of the 5% wealthy group who own 95% of the worlds resources because they want to play it safe. They want the money, the fame, the accolades but they feel they should not have to go through the process of creating this wealth. No wonder the internet and other places are full of scams and get rich quick opportunities. Remember this success does not happen overnight, but one night success does happen. Someone once said to me, it takes 3 years to be an overnight success!

If you’re tired of living paycheck to pay check discover how to build your home party & direct sales business with hot prospects, well attended home parties, and spending less money than you make, then your troubles have ended…

You can now secure your own copy of The Little Black Book Of Home Party Plan Marketing Secrets! Now you too will know the secrets of 6-Figure Home Party Consultants.

To Your Success,

Party Plan Pat

[http://www.homepartyplansuccesstips.com]

Home Party & Direct Sales Marketing Expert

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Patricia_Makhulo

Finance Article: Capital Budgeting

For the growing firms, Capital investments decisions are very important to stay in the business and to remain competitive in the market. The planning for capital investments is very complex and involves many persons inside and outside of the company, as these decisions cannot be reversed at a low cost and mistakes can be very costly. The nature and complexity of capital decision can vary depending on the size of the project. Lower-level managers may have a discretion to make decisions that involves less than a given amount of money or that do not exceed a given capital budget. Larger and more complex decisions are reserved for discretion of top management and some are so significant that a company’s board of directors ultimately has the decision-making authority.

Capital budgeting is a cost-benefit analysis. At the margin, the benefits from improved decision making should exceed the costs of the capital budgeting efforts in order to create wealth for shareholders.

The Capital budgeting decisions are based on cash flows rather than accounting net income which deduct the non cash charges and more importantly based on timing of cash flows where capital decision maker put extraordinary efforts in order to determine with precision when cash flows will occur. The Relevant cash flows in capital budgeting decisions depend on future cash flows and future benefits including non-cash expenses and income. To determine the relevant cash flows, high level of professional skills is mandatory for judging the relevant or irrelevant cash or noncash expenses. Relevant cash flows are of two types of outputs that are, cash and cash inflows. Cash outflows are relatively easy to determine, including initial capital costs plus the cost of installation of plant and machinery. You can also include the reversal of initial working capital repayment after project completion. Cash inflows are more technical in nature and are determined by adding depreciation to profits after tax for each year. Moreover, residual value of an asset and recovery of working capital is also added at the end of the project.

For cost-benefit analysis, we implied time value of money technique using the discount rate. The discount rate we used in capital budgeting could be different from the firm discount rate as it depends on riskiness of the project like replacement projects have probably the same risk as the firm but expansion projects are more riskier project where a new discount rate or required rate should be determined. The discount rate is a rate which is required on a project by a diversified investor.

The discount rate should thus be a risk adjusted discount rate. In order to calculate the discount rate for a particular project, there two equilibrium models, for estimating this risk premium, are the capital asset pricing model (CAPM) and arbitrage pricing theory (APT).

In the CAPM, total risk can be broken into two components: systematic risk and unsystematic risk. Systematic risk is the portion of risk that is related to the market and that cannot be diversified away. Unsystematic risk is non-market risk that can be diversified away. Diversified investors can demand a risk premium for taking systematic risk but not unsystematic risk. When corporation is diversified or investors who are financing the project are diversified investor, it would be inappropriate to incorporate unsystematic risk factor in determining the required return for the project.

The last important consideration in capital budgeting is forecasting the inflation to incorporate its effect in cash flows and discount rate. Accuracy of estimation in forecasting inflation is essential because if the inflation is higher than expected, the profitability of investments is correspondingly lower than expected. Inflation essentially shifts wealth from the taxpayer to the government. Higher than expected inflation, higher will be the corporation’s real taxes because it reduces the value of the depreciation tax shelter.

I am a freelance writer who interest in writing about finance issue! You can read more about it by visiting my finance blog [http://greatinfoline.com/finance/]

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Jone_R_Brown

More Help For Avoiding Fake Commercial Financing Articles

In a recent working capital financing article, we described the increasing use of fake content about commercial loans throughout the internet community. In the earlier AEX Commercial Financing report, we provided practical suggestions for avoiding publishers of fictitious information about business cash advances and commercial mortgages. We are providing more detailed suggestions for avoiding this growing problem in the discussion below.

The use of reputable publication sites is one of the most effective ways to avoid fake commercial financing articles. These trusted sites will employ their best efforts to eliminate articles for which the author does not have ownership rights. The best of these high-quality and responsible sites will require review of articles by a human editor prior to publication. Most of these websites will provide detailed contact information for the author. Some especially-thorough sites require authors to submit sample articles to demonstrate effective writing capabilities before publication.

For articles not published on an established site, some detective work might be necessary. The absence of detailed contact information can indicate that the site is more interested in having visitors click on advertising links rather than facilitating getting in touch with someone associated with the website. The worst offenders will typically steal content previously published on trusted sites such as those described above and remove the resource box (thus eliminating contact information for the author).

The best indicator of questionable content on these ethically-challenged sites is often the prominence of articles which do not always make sense if you read them closely. This occurs because many such sites use software to scour the internet and to publish an article based on some random combination from a variety of sources. The resulting content provides selected keywords which is designed to bring search engine traffic even if the content itself does not make much sense. For these questionable sites, unintelligible articles often mean that a visitor is more likely to click on a paid link that appears to be relevant to their own keyword search. In other words, most of these low-value sites actually prefer that the content itself will not make sense to a reader because their game plan depends on visitors clicking on paid advertising links.

There are currently many commercial financing sites which provide only their contact information along with an article originally published elsewhere by an expert for commercial loans. These sites will remove the legitimate resource box for the actual article and represent the work as their own. There are several strategies which can help with this situation.

First, use a prominent search engine to perform your own review of other business financing articles published by the author. If articles can only be found on the one website, at a minimum this suggests that the author is certainly not a commercial loans expert. This is in itself an important finding, because business cash advances and commercial real estate loans are more complex than they might appear, and most business owners simply cannot afford to work with inexperienced working capital advisors.

Second, a detailed conversation with the indicated author will be informative. Ask about where other small business loans articles they have published can be found on the internet. The critical importance of such interactive discussions between business financing advisors and business borrowers cannot be emphasized enough since business owners will eventually need very personalized help with their working capital cash management. The likelihood of getting such individualized attention from this particular source will be obvious after a candid discussion.

Third, we previously recommended the use of established article websites. Many of these are now providing an author widget which is very helpful in providing a practical overview of work published by a specific author. Those sites without such a widget are likely to provide a summary index of articles by each author. The widgets or other summaries will quickly demonstrate how many articles a particular author has written. An author well-versed in commercial financing is likely to have published articles about topics such as credit card processing, SBA loans and business opportunity financing. It is suggested that commercial borrowers review a few pertinent articles in their entirety to help determine whether the author is a commercial loan expert that appears to be capable of helping with their specific business financing situation.

Stephen Bush is Chief Executive Officer of AEX Commercial Mortgages and is a business cash advances expert working with small business owners throughout the United States. Please contact Steve at AEX Commercial Financing Group for practical advice about commercial loans and working capital financing.

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Stephen_Bush

Finance Articles – Tips on Where to Get Them

When you deal with money and the various aspects that are concerned with it, then you are basically describing what finance is. There are many branches and disciplines that are all included in finances that few people understand. Since this is so, many people nowadays are always on the look out for information that can help improve their overall understanding of finances. There are many sources of information from books to magazines to the Internet. The Internet has opened doors for many people to conduct business and even gather information to help improve their financial situation in general.

There are two categories that finance articles can be found. There are those that are discussion based and deal with current financial issues and services. Then there is the category that provides proper descriptions of the difficult financial terms and target individuals who carry out research for educational purposes. There is a wide variety of articles that have been submitted that can give you advice on the various subjects on finance.

The information that you find in these articles contain information ranging from new offers, banking information, loans, payments and much more. You will find a lot of information on every topic that has to do with finance. You can get access to some of them for free or you may pay for others. The writers of these articles have to have thorough knowledge and have done adequate research on the topic.

It is also essential for the writer to use clear and easily comprehensible language. This is because some of the terminologies used to describe the topics can be complex. You can also get finance articles in the dailies or finance magazines. This could be from readers who inquire about a specific financial situation and they get answers from qualified experts. This will help other readers in similar situations have a clue on the way to handle their issues.

Mercy Maranga writes content on Finance and Finance Management. Visit her site here for more information on Finance. Finance Information [http://macypages.com/finance/?p=616].

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Mercy_Maranga

Why You Should Ignore Personal Finance Articles

Take my advice, you should ignore personal finance articles from the various gurus and experts online directing you how to best invest your money and plan your finances. Shocking statement, shouldn’t you trust the experts who spend all day researching the financial offers available when you spend your time focusing on your work? The truth is, most people are better off trusting their instincts and common sense when it comes to money management and should develop their own ability to manage their money.

The consumer scenario that is encountered is that when a money problem arises, perhaps investments are not providing the return rates they wish for or they are in need of a fast loan to cover an emergency, that begin to research personal finance articles and advice. We read personal finance articles by these gurus and we discover new ways to invest our money, rebuild our credit or acquire loans. There is nothing inherently wrong with this research, except there is a hidden trap to believing everything these personal finance articles describe.

The inherent trap in researching personal finance articles is that most consumers stop there. What I mean by this is, most consumers take the bad credit repair advice of a guru or an investment suggestion and believe it to be true at face value. In many cases the articles advice is accurate and your personal finances might benefit from the suggestions, but often these articles cover only the basics and you would be well served be aware that your unique situation often requires a unique approach.

So where does this leave us as a consumer in search of personal finance articles with good advice to improve our portfolio? I am simply suggesting that you read personal finance articles with a critical eye and be sure to perform your own due diligence of research on the techniques and investments that are proposed. You should test and measure results for any financial changes you make, in the end finance is a science in which you should expect measurable cash results for proper choices.

Use these personal finance articles for what they are intended for, to stimulate your own creativity, and to maybe help you discover money ideas that you had not already considered. Trust your common sense when it comes to money, no one knows your unique situation better than yourself. If you are rebuilding your credit, for example, most people know what it takes, sometimes all that is needed is a helping hand and a push in the right direction.

Ariel Pryor is a consumer credit expert who helps people with Bad Credit to find financing with loans and or credit options despite their credit history. Let me help you get back on track to wealth building, check out Bad Credit Loans. Let me help rebuild and get back to the financial rewards you deserve.

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